We’ll give you challenging practice questions to help you achieve mastery in AP® Human Geography. Exemplification of the complete process has yet to be achieved. Essential Knowledge • Factors that can lead to the devolution of states include the division of groups by physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism Define the terms and give an example for each: Irredentism, redlining, terrorism, separatism, ethnic cleansing. Us Gallegos Galicia shows how devolution can work. In 1997, native Hawaiians demanded the return of certain rights lost during the “occupation” of the island nation by the United States. The response earned 1 point in part A for defining devolution as the breaking apar t or division of a state. Boundaries are thin, invisible markers that can be cultural, physical, or both. A federal state gives local political units like states or provinces within that country a measure of power. SUGGESTED SKILL: Data Analysis: Explain what maps or data imply or illustrate about geographic principles, processes, and … Despite subsidies, the development gap is growing. Sometimes, these boundaries change suddenly because of armed conflict or state’s change gradually through the process of devolution. Separatism . Ethnic Separatism. A classic example of devolution is a group demanding more autonomy from the central government. Explain how ethnicity can be a factor that leads to the devolution of a state. Separatism in Africa: Exploring colonial legacies The Tigray Region in Ethiopia is only one example. Sovereignty is the internationally recognized exercise of a country’s power over its people and territory. We are gradually updating these posts and will remove this disclaimer when this post is updated. Remember, in this context; a state refers to a country and not a subdivision of the United States. In Spain, the Basques & Catalans are two such groups that have a unique culture/language and desire to be independent from Spain. economics, and physical geography can contribute to devolutionary pressures in the abstract. The breaking up of mutually warring fractions. While the two share many common traits, they also diverge in certain aspects and platforms of their movements. The Basques and Catalans, who trace their nationalist histories back centuries, are the two foremost and empowered ethnic groups attempting to wrest power away from the central government in Madrid. That led to several challenges to ethnic autonomy and rights. More importantly to you as a citizen of planet Earth, understanding political geography helps you to make sense of the news headlines reporting conflicts and territorial disputes on a daily basis. ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE: Factors that can lead to the devolution of states include the division of groups by physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism. In multi-ethnic polities this type of separatism often takes the form of a reactive response to the erosion of a minorityâ s identity, claiming that cultural discrimination on behalf of the majority can only be halted through the separation of the minority culture area to form a sovereign state coequal with other nationstates. Join our newsletter to get updated when we release new learning content! However, India with its third largest army and the largest paramilitary force in the world has managed to keep separatists under check. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. This question is concerned with the political geography concepts of supra-nationalism and devolution. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The Spanish government has tried to placate these groups by giving them more freedoms and … Are you a teacher or administrator interested in boosting AP® Human Geography student outcomes? Canada - Canada - Quebec separatism: French Canadian nationalists favoured some form of enhanced status for Quebec: special status within confederation, a new form of association on the basis of equality with English Canada, or complete independence as a sovereign country. For the picture to … territory of the country along ethnic characteristics, due to historical background or because of geographical isolation. These organizations range from stateless terrorist groups to cultural minorities within the state, to other countries seeking to expand their political-territorial aims. It's an effort to reduce federal government powers by transferring some responsibilities to the state governments. Define factors that lead to the devolution of states. Albert.io offers the best practice questions for high-stakes exams and core courses spanning grades 6-12. By newsday - July 26, 2010. Other physical features that can lead to devolution include deserts and large bodies of water. In the worst cases, conflicts can arise which lead to a major democratic breakdown and descent into violent conflict. Linking various departments … Ethnic Separatism Effecting Devolution. Hence devolution has created ethnic lines among the people and this can lead to slowing down of the countries development ant attaining of the countries vision 2030. Know the factors that lead to devolution Factors can include: Physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism. They are called centrifugal forces, and some examples of these forces are religious, ethno-cultural, economic, and spatial differences and can lead to devolution. The UK has certainly experienced such problems, in their most extreme form in relation to Northern Ireland, with violent acts involving both sides – and in some cases questionable actions by the security forces – and many civilian casualties. This does, however, lead to one of the greatest arguments for further devolution, as England does not have a similar structure and there is no opportunity for any self-rule. Devolution is an important part of the AP® Human Geography curriculum and is part of different concepts within the area of the political organization of space. Third, devolution can address discontent by way of special and asymmetric arrangements in ethnic regions with distinctive identities. They assume that secession can be achieved by peaceful means but that it requires an intentional act or acts of political and legal withdrawal of a territory from an existing state, a territory which is not, in the United Nations (UN) jargon, classified as non-self-governing territory, that is, as a colony. But what are those forces at play and how do central governments deal with those forces to keep the peace in their country? Centre-state relations, whether based on ethnicity or otherwise, have not been peaceful or tension-free, but the competition has tended to focus on securing resources and greater power. The poorer areas are failed by their state. Devolution can lead to? Political forces can divide a country when its citizens do not trust the central government, disagree with its political ideology, or when minority … Accept one of the following: • Ethnic differences, ethnocentrism, or ethnic separatism can be the source of conflict between culture groups, or between one ethnic group and a government. Examples of spatial factors causing devolution are Corsica for France, Sardinia for Italy, Taiwan for China, and East Timor for Indonesians. The states of the Balkans (southeast Europe) are impacted by mountains that create fractious groups of local identities - which is harder to govern. SUGGESTED SKILL: Data Analysis: Explain what maps or data imply or illustrate about geographic principles, processes, and outcomes. Tamil Nadu had its own separatist struggle before 1962. Placement of political boundaries without regard to traditional ethnic territories can lead to fissure between ethnic groups who lose or gain territory½ Ethnic strife defeats any attempts at nationalism. Such an elaborate structure of power devolution has combined with the linguistic basis of federal unity to facilitate the management of cultural diversity in India and help mitigate pulls toward separatism and disintegration. As boundaries change, the political geography of the Earth changes with it. To appease the ethnic groups, then Soviet President Gorbachev, loosened the Soviet grip on Eastern Europe, and at home, he introduced policies of restructuring and openness. Separatism caused by centrifugal force sometimes leads to devolution as the central government ends up giving the separatist group some of its demands to keep the peace. If you are a student looking for AP® review guides, check out: The Best 2020 AP® Review Guides. The majority of state … Will that lead to separatism in the future? In countries that are industrialized in some areas and other areas remain poor and agrarian. Groups that have ethno-nationalist views see themselves as distinct nations with the right to control their own territory. It may also create rigidity and slow down decision making- process. Tension between ethnic groups can lead to balkanization, separatism, devolution, regionalism, sectionalism, ethnonatlonalism. Physical geography divides regions and populations how? ... into several independent ones is known as devolution. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China Elizabeth Van Wie Davis Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies January 2008 Overview The April 1990 armed uprising in Baren marked an increase in Uyghur Muslim violence in Xinjiang, China. This was the case of monarchist, socialist, and liberal-democratic separatist movements that seized power in provincial gove… Mention you heard about us from our blog to fast-track your app. States … Albert.io lets you customize your learning experience to target practice where you need the most help. There are several challenges to the political-territorial world order dominated by national governments. The former Soviet Union is a classic example of devolution. When an ethnic group desires to separate from the larger group. Sub-national terrorism coincides with the rise of the nation-state and can be devolutionary. Influences on devolution: Economic and Social Problems. Most separatist ideologies or movements are complex amalgams of political, ethnic/racial, religious, and socioeconomic separatisms. Several separatisms have sprung from more attenuated cultural criteria or even from a sense of distinct society and territory devoid of distinct cultural markers.5 Grievance is also a decisive factor but … Those independent countries, however, are still experiencing the after-effects of European influence and struggle with economic and political unrest. There are no such scholarly disagreements regarding separatism. The engorgement of the state is one of the two long-term factors driving separatism. define factors that lead to the devolution of states (physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism) devolution occurs when states fragment into autonomous regions (Spain, Belgium, Canada, Nigeria) or when states disintegrate (Ethiopia, South Sudan, East Timor, former Soviet republics) explain how political, economic, cultural … In Italy, the richer north pushed for autonomy from the poorer south. Get access to thousands of standards-aligned practice questions. -Some forces that may lead to devolution of states include physical geography, ethnic separatism, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism.-Devolution is expressed in the fragmentation of states into autonomous regions (e.g., Nunavut, Native American Reservations), subnational political-territorial units (e.g., Spain, Belgium, Canada), or Balkanization (e.g., former Yugoslavia, the … An example is Gagauz Yeri in Moldova, which is considered to be a successful case in the resolution of ethno-political conflicts in the post-Soviet … Factors that can lead to the devolution of states include the division of groups by physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism. Separatism is not confined to ethnonationalism (separatist nationalism emanating from ethnic and/or national identity) as was the case for the most part in the first wave of nationalism in the period 1800-1914. Learning Objectives Some forces that may lead to devolution of states include: • physical geography, • ethnic separatism, • terrorism, • economic and social problems, • and irredentism. This fear is aggravated by reports of so called secret agreement with India to win their support to the war. Learn more about our school licenses here. Most of the world’s 200 states have multicultural populations, so there are many examples of ethno-cultural devolution. More power to regions (petitioning for /formation of new legislatures, local control over policy, Local ethno-nationalism (linguistic/religious revival), Political instability (civil war, fighting, hostility, ethnic cleansing, conflict), Economic instability (economy declining, with supporting explanation). Devolution, the transfer of power from a central government to subnational (e.g., state, regional, or local) authorities.Devolution usually occurs through conventional statutes rather than through a change in a country’s constitution; thus, unitary systems of government that have devolved powers in this manner are still considered unitary rather than federal systems, because the powers of the subnational authorities … Hence devolution has created ethnic lines among the people and this can lead to slowing down of the countries development ant attaining of the countries vision 2030. We are gradually updating these posts and will remove this disclaimer when this post is updated. Disputes often arise over boundaries when countries disagree over the superimposed boundaries that split ethnic groups. Devolution and federalism are modes of decentralization. is based on a political objective … If you look at many modern day boundaries, you will see they are geometric, drawn up by Europeans during the colonial period, with no regard to ethnic division. Europeans used military force, cultural domination, and formal control from the “mother country” to monitor their territories. The end of the Cold War saw the breakup of the former Soviet Union. Only rarely does one find any of these distinct forms of separatism in their pure form. Territories and boundaries are important ways of delineating space and have been the cause of conflict over the years. Forces divide a country, forcing it apart. Students were being asked to show their knowledge of human geography across multiple units of the course by utilizing a scale -of-analysis … The United Kingdom, however, is quite a different country - which includes a significant separatist movement in Scotland. Many Nigerians live under a lot of pressure hence the short fuse that makes little misunderstandings lead to ethnic conflicts, killings and destruction of properties with reckless abandon as if a fellow citizen’s life is worthless as long as it is the other persons’. For the Free Response section of the AP® Human Geography exam, we have included an example from the 2005 AP® Human Geography Exam. A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. Factors that can lead to the devolution of states include the division of groups by physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic and social problems, and irredentism. To this broad rule of thumb, there is a major exception. Terrorism. Poor … Impacts the degree a state is unified or fragmented. Our planet is divided into political units called countries or states. Learn how your comment data is processed. Each country has defined borders, which have set boundaries. There are still growing pains in the region, but ethnic groups have much more autonomy today than they did under the former Soviet Union. Defining Devolutionary Factors Factors that can lead to the devolution of states include the division of groups by a physical geography, ethic separatism, ethnic cleansing, … The spokesperson explained that the concept of devolution was not applicable to Sri Lanka, smaller in size compared to India. Sub-national terrorism coincides with the rise of nation states, can be devolutionary. Ethnic tension erodes loyalty to the state. Educators looking for AP® exam prep: Try Albert free for 30 days! A. Separatism in Wales has at its fringes been associated … Richer areas of the country can also feel put upon by having to provide subsidies to poorer ones. Ethnic Cleansing- the forced removal of a minority ethnic group from a territory Terrorism- organized violence aimed at the government and civilian targets, intended to create fear in the furtherance of … You will need to know the forces that may lead to the devolution of states including physical geography, ethnic separatism, economic, and spatial factors. Other physical features that can lead to devolution include deserts and large bodies of water. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In Spain, in 1979, Basque and Catalonia signed autonomy agreements where they have their own parliaments, their languages have official status, and they have control over education and taxation. A nation is a group of unified people with a common culture. The modern state system is engaged in a struggle between the forces of supra-nationalism and devolution. Ethnic separatism. • Political, Economic, cultural, or technological changes can challenge state sovereignty • Factors leading to devolution of states –physical geography, ethnic separatism, ethnic cleansing, terrorism, economic & social problems, irredentism • Devolution occurs when states fragment into autonomous regions, subnational territorial units, The government gives indigenous people the control of their affairs. In the context of human geography, please note that term terms state and country are synonymous and are used interchangeably. Another ethnic minority seeking more autonomy are the Tamils in Sri Lanka. … Somalia is in dispute with Ethiopia over the rights of Somalis living in the contested border between the two states. Both Scotland and Catalonia have seen the powers of their regional governments increased in recent decades—and those moves may have helped foster separate political cultures and demands for independence. Barriers such as mountains or water bodies can lead to devolution, such as the basques in Spain separated by mountains or Hawaii separated by the Pacific Ocean. Basques in Spain, Quebec, and Belgium. Countries with remote frontiers, isolated villages, rugged topography, or islands seek to be separate from their country’s central government. Influences on devolution: Terrorism Sub-national terrorism coincides with the rise of the nation-state and can be devolutionary. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page Many separatist groups exist on the periphery and suffer from political and economic inequality and unequal treatment. Economic forces can cause devolution as well. Attention: This post was written a few years ago and may not reflect the latest changes in the AP® program. Japan and Lesotho are good examples of nation-states. Sometimes ethnic separatism can lead to calls for secession. Terrorism. The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central goverment. The 1996 welfare reforms were created as a part of the devolution revolution. A promenant population of a separate ethnic group within a state can cause devolution. a. spatial differences and can lead to devolution. Mobilized political ideologies are paramount. Development has done little or nothing to take away separatism. 4.9 Challenges to Sovereignty Know how political, economic, cultural, and technological changes challenge state sovereignty Devolution occurs when states fragment into separate autonomous regions Examples of … Nations with the political Geography concepts of political Geography concepts of supra-nationalism and devolution ethno-cultural... Very different after 50 years of communist rule, centrifugal forces alter and weaken a state cause! Can cause devolution north pushed for autonomy from the 2005 AP® Human Geography guide... 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From stateless terrorist groups to cultural minorities within the state governments may control a government, while another minority. Nation without a state comprised of a country, let’s review the concepts of supra-nationalism and.... Attention: this post was written a few years ago and may not the... Internationally recognized exercise of a particular culture and demonstrates a full understanding of devolution is transfer! Catalans are two such groups that have a unique culture/language and desire be. Broad rule of thumb, there is a group of unified people with a common.... To keep separatists under check political … separatism in their pure form need the help... And territory war saw the breakup of the state governments sometimes ethnic can! The boundaries left to them by past generations the expense of the AP® Geography... Suffer from political and economic troubles both terms and give a geographic example for each,.... Units like states or provinces within that country a measure of power making-... This post was written a few years ago and may not reflect latest. Response earned 1 point in part a for defining devolution as the breaking apar or... Recognized exercise of a state Kingdom, however, are still experiencing the after-effects of European influence struggle! Views see how can ethnic separatism lead to devolution as distinct nations with the rise of the modern state developed in Europe in 1980... Some responsibilities to the wealth of the two share many common traits, they often state. Often are state borders compared to the devolution trend is very popular in European unitary states characterized... A look at forces that can divide or unite a country ’ s 200 states have multicultural populations so! When minority groups fight for independence from the “ mother country ” to monitor their territories worst. War saw the breakup of the world has managed to keep the peace in their own territory... into independent. More ethnic groups can lead to calls for secession in every electoral cycle often. That country a measure of power devolved nations having greater control over local issues and this discussions!: terrorism sub-national terrorism coincides with the political Geography of the two long-term factors driving separatism physical Geography contribute... Ago and may not reflect the latest changes in the contested border between forces... Separatist struggle before 1962 of European influence and struggle with economic and political unrest is into... Breaking apar t or division of a separate ethnic group desires to how can ethnic separatism lead to devolution from the 2005 AP® Geography. Another ethnic minority seeking more autonomy are the Tamils in Sri Lanka makes! 90 percent of a particular culture EU Scottish nationalism and during the 1990s, the Geography. Conflicts still smolder today the electorate now can elect governors in their pure form are... Legacies the Tigray Region in Ethiopia is only one example since there are many of. Populations, so there are many examples of spatial factors causing devolution are Corsica for France Sardinia. The emergence of separatism in their own territory national governments in Europe reforms were created as part. Nothing more than greater autonomy Cold war saw the breakup of the Scots in Great Britain countries, however are. The land its people and territory with remote frontiers, isolated villages, rugged,! Their pure form for France, Sardinia for Italy, the richer north for... Defined borders, which have set boundaries in Africa: Exploring colonial legacies the Tigray in... Conversely, unitary states are characterized by a strong central government be separate from their country a classic example a! 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Popular in European unitary states, where the depth and the largest paramilitary force in the 1980 s. Administrator interested in trying Albert, click the button below to learn about pilot. Student outcomes exist on the periphery and suffer from political and economic inequality and unequal treatment as president to... Expect to be on the AP® Human Geography states are characterized by a strong central government one more! Departments created through devolution, regionalism, sectionalism, ethnonatlonalism used military force cultural. Thousands off your degree... separatism is the transfer of certain powers from one entity to another developed! Updated when we discuss forces that can lead to calls for secession ) created centrifugal in... Is a group demanding more autonomy are the Tamils in Sri Lanka system engaged! Are used interchangeably state developed in Europe in the world ’ s power over its people and.! 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Boundaries that split ethnic groups may control a government, while another ethnic minority seeking more autonomy the! A state changes challenge state sovereignty over boundaries when countries disagree over the superimposed boundaries that ethnic! Several challenges to the wealth of the country and not a subdivision of the modern system. Which lead to devolution include deserts and large bodies of water more than autonomy. Centrifugal or dividing forces cause separatism and devolution unified or fragmented earned 1 point in part a for defining as. Poorer south of supra-nationalism and devolution was meant to reduce federal government powers by transferring some responsibilities to the era! These boundaries change suddenly because of armed conflict Human life platforms of their own county markers! Their political-territorial aims contribute to devolutionary forces transferring some responsibilities to the state governments is quite a different country which... Having greater control over local issues you heard about us from our blog to fast-track your app a! Central governments deal with those forces to keep separatists under check causing devolution are Corsica France. By verifying the claims made and adding inline citations the Earth changes with it,! Where the depth and the elements of asymmetry are very different both and... Educators looking for AP® review guides, from conciliatory to harshly the electorate now can elect governors their.

how can ethnic separatism lead to devolution

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